Auschwitz Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945)
Auchwitz-Birkenau camp is a symbol and memorial of one of the world - biggest genocides, called Holocaust (the mass people extermination and genocide), which took place during WWII in the Nazi camps which were established in Poland and other European countries. Auchwitz-Birkenau camp was inscribed into the UNESCO's List of World Heritage Sites in 1979 as the place which is an evidence to one of the greatest crimes ever perpetrated against humanity. Auschwitz was established in May, 1940, near Krakow. It was built on the areas of the village of Oswiecim. It was the biggest Nazi camp which was divided into three camps: Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II (Birkenau), Auschwitz III (Monowitz). Originally, the camp was built for Poles and later for Soviet prisoners of war. But it soon became a prison for people of other nationalities. A new Nazi-German project of the Final Solution became a reason to extend the camp and focused on Jews' extermination. The plan was to innihilate 11 million European Jews, and Aushwitz camp played a key role in this process. During about 5 years, 1-1.5 million people were murdered, 1-1.35 million were Jews. The Auschwitz complex of camps was isolated from the world and surrounded with electrically charged barbed wire fencing. It was such well-guarded that it was almost impossible to escape from the camp. Above the main gate to the camp, there is an German inscription: Arbeit macht frei, which means work makes one free. Inmates were forced to backbreaking effort which often ended with their death. The great number of prisoners were murdered in gas chambers, in 'medical experiments', bludgeoned to death, or because of unbearable living conditions which caused many diseases. The camp was liberated the camp by the Soviet Army, in January 27, 1945.